It's a "must read" for those who want to understand how and why law enforcement crisis/hostage negotiation procedures were created.
Case History: Downs v. United States
Tomas C. Mijares, PhD Jay D. Jamieson, PhD
The tragic consequences of inexperience, lack of an established base of knowledge and training, combined with poor situational judgment during a hostage incident in 1971, resulted in significant changes in the application of the Federal Tort Claims Act to allegations of negligence on the part of crisis negotiators. The incident, as a glaring example of everything not to do in a hostage event, has influenced the subsequent development of fundamental knowledge, training, and skills for police crisis negotiations.
Read the full paper [HERE].