Monday, December 29, 2014


By Lynne Kinnucan

The Roman god Janus, responsible for overseeing the beginnings and ends of conflicts, was also the god of transitions. As we transit into 2015, we wanted to look at what we have learned from the insights and practices of negotiators who are experienced in transitions. All of them based their work in authentic listening.

We mentioned active listening in almost every issue last year because, although it is an old practice, it is played out in ways that are always new.  This month’s Corner reviews some of the comments on hostage negotiation techniques and the common root from which they spring. 

Trainer and retired FBI hostage negotiator Derek Gaunt noted that deep listening is a powerful skill, but difficult to master, and he works from day one to get the active listening skills off the page and into his students’ muscle memory. 

He steers them away from one of the biggest mistakes a hostage negotiator can make: using active listening skills like a robot. If a negotiator is thinking only about which skill to use next, the subject may think the negotiator doesn’t care about his problems and … how to put this ….may react badly.  Negotiations have been won and lost over this skill.

Gary Noesner, retired hostage negotiator and author of Stalling for Time, expands on this:  

The sincere and genuine demonstration of your interest and understanding of the other person's problem/point of view is far more important than your ability to provide a quick solution."  

In fact, the quick solution is often damaging to the process of attunement and resolution.  The listening must come first.

Saturday, December 20, 2014

Building Trust in a Volatile Situation

David Horsager Headshot
The recent "Siege in Sydney" provided me with the chance to consider how the Trust Edge illustrates a workable approach even in the most volatile, life-threatening and unpredictable situations. Police and military forces around the world have developed specific protocols for obtaining the safe release of hostages in an increasingly dangerous world. These protocols were born out of the aftermath of the 1972 Olympic hostage crisis in Munich, which tragically ended with the deaths of 9 hostages and one police officer. Wishing to get better results when similar incidents happened in the future, teams of professional negotiators, law enforcement and military personnel have developed a better way of managing these terrible situations...similar in many ways to the Trust Edge.

David then talks about the C's

  • Compassion
  • Connection & Connectivity
  • Commitment
  • Conclusion
I encourage you to read the full article [HERE]. 

Tuesday, December 9, 2014

"Just Shut Up And Listen"

From the NY Times article on Thanksgiving tips on dealing with family issues:

“Just shut up and listen,” said Frederick J. Lanceley, the F.B.I.’s former senior negotiator and former principal director of its negotiation course, when asked how to get two parties who are at odds with each other to cooperate at the holiday dinner table. “People want to be heard. They want the attention.

Mr. Lanceley said that during his 26 years with the F.B.I., his active listening skills caused perpetrators in various cases to confess, to ask if they could write him from jail or to even offer him a job. Mr. Lanceley advocated the following course of action: 

Repeating what the other person says, we call that paraphrasing. ‘So what you’re telling me is that the F.B.I. screwed you over by doing this and that,’ and then you repeat back to him what he said. Also, emotional labeling: ‘You sound like you were hurt by that.’ ‘You sound like it must have been really annoying.’ Little verbal encouragements: ‘Unh-huh,’ ‘Mm-hmm.’ A nod of the head to let them know you’re there.”

The article quotes familiar names from the Law Enforcement Crisis/Hostage Negotiation world such as Chris Voss, Gary Noesner, Jennifer Higby, Jennifer Hardwick, Robin Burcell, and Judy Couwels. 

Read the full article [HERE].

Monday, December 1, 2014

A deal's a deal: Former FBI negotiator Chris Voss lands 6-figure deal for 'Killer Deals.'

A former FBI hostage negotiator has a six-figure deal with an imprint of HarperCollins Publishers for a book entitled "Killer Deals."

Read the full (and brief) article from the AP [HERE].

Read more about Chris Voss [HERE]. 

Saturday, November 29, 2014

Western States Hostage Negotiators' Association 29th Annual Training Conference


For Immediate Release

The Western States Hostage Negotiators' Association (WSHNA) is excited to announce their 29th Annual Training Conference.

April 28, 2015 to May 1, 2015 at the Hotel Captain Cook, Anchorage Alaska.

Full information at
WSHNA is also on Facebook under our full name.

Our web site includes presenter information, hotel link with a special negotiated rate, airfare discounts with Alaska Airlines and on-line registration and payment.

The goal of the association is to develop in members a higher degree of proficiency in the performance of their professional duties. The association shall provide training for members, and the association shall act as a resource and conduit for information sharing.

WSHNA depends upon your involvement as a member to accomplish these goals. WSHNA represents police & corrections crisis negotiators from Alaska, British Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, & Washington.

Monday, November 24, 2014

'It’s OK to be touchy-feely': Officers use empathy, active listening to end standoffs

...Bodine credited the safe resolution of the standoff to Crisis Intervention Team training, a 40-hour program that teaches law enforcement officers tactful ways to interact with and help people who may pose a threat, but are dealing with mental health or substance abuse problems, or are simply having a really bad day.

...In the case of the man standing on the Rims, this meant bringing his mother and girlfriend to the scene. Allowing the man to hug his mother before handcuffing him and putting him in a patrol car was the “deciding factor” in ending the standoff peacefully, according to Keightley.
There are other striking differences between the reality of crisis negotiation and how negotiators are portrayed on the silver screen.

Read more at Billings Gazette:

Monday, November 17, 2014

President Obama Orders Full Review of Hostage Negotiation Policy

President Obama has ordered a comprehensive review of policy dictating how the U.S. government tries to secure the freedom of Americans held hostage by terrorists abroad, a senior Pentagon official revealed in a recent letter to a member of Congress.
“As a result of the increased frequency of hostage-taking of Americans overseas, and the recognition of the dynamic threat posed by specific terrorist groups, the President recently directed a comprehensive review of the U.S. Government policy on overseas terrorist-related hostage cases, with specific emphasis on examining family engagement, intelligence collection, and diplomatic engagement policies,”...
Read more from ABC News [HERE]. 

Sunday, November 16, 2014

Applying Law Enforcement Crisis Negotiator Intervention Skills To Commercial Mediation

Have a look at this article from Alternatives if you are trying to apply crisis and hostage negotiation skills to your commercial mediation/negotiation practice.

Law enforcement professionals might also find it of value to review your skills as well.

The article covers:

  1. Establishing communication and building rapport
  2. "Buying" time
  3. Defusing emotions
  4. Gathering information to decide on the best negotiation strategy
Download the (pdf) article [HERE]. 

Monday, November 10, 2014

A History of Hostage Negotiation Presentation to The Chartered Institute of Arbitrators London Branch

 A History of Hostage Negotiation
Presentation to The Chartered Institute of Arbitrators London Branch

By Commander Dave Johnston of  The Metropolitan Police Service - Specialist Crime Directorate


Ladies, gentlemen and honoured guests of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators that is the standard opening for any police negotiator.  Thank you for the kind invitation to come here this evening and talk to you about a subject, which has been near, and dear, to my heart for many years.

I thought I ought to begin with a short overview of the history of negotiations before talking of the role we play in today’s environment.

Hostage negotiators have long been used in some form or other and indeed, it is an ancient art or skill, which stretches back to at least the Greek era.   Polybius, the son of an eminent Greek governor  was one of the 1000 nobles who in 168 BC were transported to Rome as hostages and detained there for 17 years. I can only think in horror, of the logistics of maintaining such a negotiation. Particularly today, given health and safety legislation and our growing concern over budgets! 

Tuesday, November 4, 2014

the 25th Annual Competition & Seminar for Crisis Negotiations

Hostage Image

Texas State University
the School of Criminal Justice
 the 25th Annual Competition & Seminar for Crisis Negotiations
January 13-15, 2015Every January, the School of Criminal Justice at Texas State University opens its doors to a number of Crisis and Hostage Negotiation teams from around the nation. The conference & seminar is a three day event, consisting of a full day of classes which explore the latest issues faced by negotiators, as well as a two day training component involving mock hostage situations. Classroom and training hours combined accredit participants with a total of 24 TCLEOSE hours. This will be Texas State’s 25th Crisis and Hostage Negotiation Seminar & Conference and we are looking forward to it being a great one.

See more information [HERE]. 

Monday, November 3, 2014

In This Corner: Lost & Found- Staying Alive in Non-Lethal Situations



By Lynne Kinnucan

In the first years of active duty, police officers face circumstances that can destroy their initial enthusiasm and motivation for their jobs.  An idealistic officer becomes a cynic; a highly motivated officer becomes disengaged or bitter.

What is it that makes a career in law enforcement so promising and then so problematic? 

Saturday, November 1, 2014

New England Crisis Negotiators Association Conference

Make sure to check out and register for the 2015 New England Crisis Negotiators Association (NECNA) conference.

The conference is April 27-29, 2015.

See the brochure [HERE- PDF file] and check their site [HERE].

Friday, October 31, 2014

Inside Terrorist Hostage Negotiations

Disappearance -- and First Contact
Every hostage situation is different, but many start the same way -- with sudden silence. When Foley was kidnapped in Syria in November 2012, neither his family nor his employer, GlobalPost, heard a word for weeks from the reporter or his captors. 

At the urging of the government, Foley’s family decided to keep quiet until January 2013, when they stepped in front of news cameras to plead publicly for their son’s release. The U.S. government embarked on aninternational effort to find Foley, but still there was no news until November 2013 – one year after Foley was kidnapped – when one email changed everything. GlobalPost CEO Phil Balboni told ABC News about the gut-wrenching process that followed:

Have a look at the ABC report from Brian Ross.  It includes a few stories and videos [HERE].

Tuesday, October 28, 2014

REPORT 'No One's Really in Charge' in Hostage Negotiations

Insiders and administration officials tell Foreign Policy that efforts to free Americans held by the Islamic State are uncoordinated, inconsistent, and crippled by bureaucratic infighting.

"No one's really in charge," said one individual who's been deeply involved in negotiations for one of the hostages and asked not to be identified because efforts are still underway to free the other two Americans held by the Islamic State. This person, summing up a general frustration shared by many others, said the different government agencies working on the hostages' cases don't appear to be on the same page or even to have the same reading of what U.S. law allows.
Read more from [HERE]. 

Monday, October 27, 2014

Fairbanks Crisis Negotiators

“Seven hours go by fast believe it or not,” Rigdon said in an interview a few weeks after the standoff. “You’re not really keeping track of time. Once you get off the phone and start doing other things for a while you realize you’ve been on the phone for a while.
...The crisis negotiators get training in psychology and negotiation tactics, though Hall stressed they use skills commonly employed by patrol officers.
“A lot of patrol does a lot of the negotiation stuff every day ... when they go to volatile calls, it’s just a matter of listening and letting somebody vent,” he said.
Read the full article from [HERE]. 

Crisis Negotiations and Negotiation Skills Insights from the New York City Police Department Hostage Negotiations Team

Daily Blog
Here are the essential skills of a NYPD HNT Negotiator:

“Talk to Me”

The motto for NYPD HNT emphasizes communication as an essential negotiation skill for their crisis negotiators, and for good reason. Opening up avenues of communication to your counterpart signals that you are ready to listen, an integral first step to building rapport between negotiating counterparts by “build[ing] trust…as well as display[ing] empathy” which can lead to further mutual gains at the bargaining table as the negotiation progresses beyond the initial stages.

Read the full article at the Harvard Program on Negotiation Blog [HERE].

Monday, October 20, 2014

Talking to Terrorists: How to End Armed Conflicts review – an optimistic analysis

As a US-led coalition continues to attack the Islamic State (Isis), Jonathan Powell, a former adviser to Tony Blair and a key intermediary in the successful negotiations between the British government and the IRA, poses an important question: should we talk to the terrorists?
His answer is yes, for without talking we will never have a true peace. Even if we can obliterate the enemy through sheer firepower, we cannot eliminate the threat they pose without removing at least some of the grievances that motivated them in the first place. And this needs a negotiated solution.
Read the full article from the Guardian [HERE]. 

Thursday, October 16, 2014

Wounded man in custody after 17-hour standoff

A suspect’s exchange of gunfire with police ended a 17-hour standoff just after 7 a.m. Tuesday in Old Town Warrenton, authorities said.

...The negotiator continued, in part:

“Josh, we’re gonna come help you, but you’ve got to get that gun away from your body . . . . If not, we’re gonna deploy the dog on you . . . .

Read more [HERE] from

Friday, October 10, 2014

How To Intimidate People


Bob Bridgestock was a heroic cop who talked people down from the tops of buildings and persuaded maniacs not to shoot their captives. During his 30 years on the force he took charge of 26 murder investigations, as well as investigating drive-by shootings, kidnappings, and extortion schemes.
The golden rule is treat people how you want to be treated. But sometimes you have to take control. You are a person in authority. Some people will not listen to a single word you say. Whether they're in the right or in the wrong, they just won't listen. They try it on to start with, to test what reaction you have. Will you take a step backward? Will you stand your ground? If you stand your ground they've got a problem. It's talking to people, but you've got to be firm.
Read more [HERE] from 

Thursday, October 9, 2014

Hostage Negotiations and Crisis Intervention Phase I & II

Instructor: Jack Cambria

 Introduction/Orientation: This opening block of instruction includes instructor and class self-introductions and an overview of the class curriculum, historical context of negotiations, provided materials and suggested readings. This portion of the training will be presented in lecture format.

Wednesday, October 8, 2014

Negotiator-in-Chief: Stop the saber-rattling. We need to talk, even to terrorists

In the weeks following U.S. journalist James Foley’s brutal beheading by the Islamic extremist group ISIS, a public debate developed over the Obama administration’s no-ransom, no-concession policy.
One of the country’s experts on hostage situations is Gary Noesner, who spent a 30-year career at the FBI as an investigator, instructor and negotiator.  Noesner responded to crises ranging from prison riots to  sieges, embassy takeovers, hijackings and more than 120 overseas kidnappings of American citizens.  The author of “Stalling for Time,” Noesner retired from the bureau in 2003 as the chief hostage negotiator and now works as a crisis management consultant. He offered these views on the the government’s current policy and how it changed in the wake of 9/11 terrorist attacks:

Does the U.S. government’s refusal to pay ransoms make sense to you?
Our current inflexible policy has not been proven to prevent or secure the release of kidnap victims. However, my view is that it remains appropriate and necessary for the U.S. government itself to avoid paying any ransom to kidnappers.  That being said, I do not believe the government should attempt to prevent families or victim corporations from paying a ransom to save a life.
Read more [HERE] from the Washington Post.

Tuesday, October 7, 2014

In This Corner: Crisis Negotiations & Business Issues

“I’ve never seen anyone win in a war. I’ve only seen people lose less.”
Michael Tsur, crisis negotiator

When the towers of 9/11 came down, a bewildered humanity walked through the city’s dust into a new world.

It had turned upside down in a nanosecond, and the consequences would forever change the shape of international relations and international negotiations.

“Before the turn of the century,” says Michael Tsur, an international high-crisis negotiator, “we were kings.  We ruled the world from our desktops. With the flick of a finger we could gather mountains of data to argue against our opponents, learn their secrets, access their worth. We were tough,we were in charge, we were aggressive.”

But Tsur, who has negotiated hundreds of high profile, complex business disputes, says that doesn’t work anymore.

 “Our great mistake was that we failed to see how that world had changed. In a world dominated now by terrorism, fear and mistrust, this combative mindset simply created more fear and more chaos.” 

Tuesday, September 30, 2014

Negotiation Tips from a Hostage Negotiator

Ninety-five-percent of the time, a task force of heavily guarded and armed officers would be on the scene first, he said, and already had the situation under control. But for the life-threatening five-percent, when a hostage situation could last for a few days, Wagner would often have to build and maintain rapport with a deranged human being.

Read more [HERE].

TED Talk: 5 Ways To Listen Better

This can be useful for all types of negotiators and conflict resolution practitioners.  It's under 8 minutes too.


Saturday, September 13, 2014

Negotiator not enough to help calm tense situation at home

La Plata County Sheriff’s Office Sgt. Nathan Harris drives the department’s new armored vehicle in July. The department says the MaxProV helped save the life Linda Provosty on Thursday.

“The steep terrain and height of the house made it too dangerous for deputies to safely approach in patrol vehicles or on foot,” Bender said. “Using their newly acquired Maximum Protection Vehicle, the (Special Weapons and Tactics) team was able to drive next to the house. 

Read more from [HERE]. 

Saturday, September 6, 2014

In This Corner: You Must Remember This

...You Must Remember This

Lynne Kinnucan

Many of our members have asked about crisis intervention trainings, as well as for tips on how to enter the field.  We hope the following excerpt  -- together with our Recommended Readings section – will be helpful to you.

Our thanks to Dr. Tina Jaeckle of Flagler College in St. Augustine, Florida, for the following insights and guidance for laypersons wishing to be involved in the field of crisis intervention.
“Although some crisis negotiators can make the [negotiation] process appear seamless, in reality it takes much practice and preparation.

It is important to differentiate the boundaries and responsibilities in the role of the crisis negotiator and those of the mental health professional on a specialty team. Although licensed mental health professionals often have extensive training in managing individual crisis responses, the trained law enforcement negotiator holds sole responsibility for negotiating directly with the subject(s). The crisis negotiator, as a law enforcement officer, has the support and influence of the SWAT team, if the situation escalates to the point of needed physical intervention. Mental health professionals can assist the team much more effectively through the provision of additional trainings and in providing further insight into human behavior.

From the perspective of a non-law enforcement officer, I would like to offer several suggestions which I believe are essential for other mental health professionals interested in providing training and consultation in this field:

Saturday, August 30, 2014


HARVEY, Ill. (WLS) -- In an ABC7 exclusive, a key hostage negotiator gave Eyewitness News an inside look at how he and others helped bring that suburban standoff in Harvey to a peaceful end.

It was a worse-case scenario: six kids and two adults held at gunpoint by two men who had already shot two police officers. State police, the South Suburban Emergency Response Team and the Cook County Sheriff's Police all came together with one goal: get everyone out alive. It ended almost a day after it began.

Saturday, August 23, 2014

Negotiator In Bunker Standoff Honored By FBI

Thursday, the director of the FBI, James B. Comey, presented Houston County Sheriff’s Capt. Bill Raffert with the FBI medal for Meritorious Achievement for his role in the negotiations, which eventually led to the safe rescue of 5-year-old Ethan Gillman, who was held hostage for nearly a week.

...According to the award ceremony program, Rafferty received the award at least in part after he established a rapport with the gunman, allowing the FBI to “devise” a rescue plan. Rafferty spent 12 hours a day talking to Dykes.

Read the full story from [HERE]. 

Monday, August 18, 2014

al Qaeda Begs U.S. To Negotiate

Al Qaeda issued another, more urgent public plea Wednesday to the family of American hostage Warren Weinstein to pressure Washington to negotiate for his release, but his wife told ABC News she feels "powerless" to help free him after three years.
The written, English-language message from the core al Qaeda group in Pakistan, where Weinstein, 73, has been suspected of being held against his will for three years as of this week, urged his family to "pressure your government." But there was no new video or photo of Weinstein, whose health is believed to have deteriorated in captivity.
..."They are begging for a negotiation. This is another unprompted attempt by al Qaeda to try to get something going on Weinstein," Voss, the FBI's former chief hostage negotiator, told ABC News on Thursday.
Voss also was a key counterterrorism agent in the investigation following the 1993 World Trade Center bombing of the Blind Sheikh, who U.S. officials have told ABC News will die in a U.S. federal prison serving his full life term and will never be freed. Al Qaeda isn't known for releasing hostages, and the U.S. does not as a policy negotiate with those responsible for 9/11.
Read the full story from ABC News [HERE]

Thursday, August 14, 2014

Crisis Negotiation Techniques in Terrorist Incidents: It’s Been 10 Years Since Beslan- What Have We Learned?

With the Society for Terrorism Research (STR) 8th Annual International Conference fast approaching, STR, partnered with the Center for Terrorism and Security Studies (CTSS), is launching a series of guest blog posts, written by those who will be presenting their research at STR14. In the sixth installment of this series Detective Jeff Thompson(@nonverbalPhD) discusses his work on the lessons learnt from the Beslan School Siege. Detective Jeff Thompson is the 2013/2014 recipient of the New York City Police Department Commissioner Raymond W. Kelly Scholarship and attended Columbia University as Research Scholar.  His research topic was crisis and hostage negotiation as well as terrorism related incidents [This article does not reflect the opinion of any group or organization that he is employed by or a member of]. 

Ten years ago terrorists in Beslan, a town in North Ossetia Russia, seized a school full of children, in what is still one of the deadliest terrorist incidents to have occurred.  The incident provides valuable insight with respect to crisis and hostage negotiations that can assist negotiators and government officials to be better prepared if they were to be involved in a similar situation where negotiating with terrorists could be the best option to ensure the least amount of casualties are suffered.

Despite the incident having displayed numerous moments that were clear examples of the terrorists escalating violence, the Beslan incident also offers valuable insight into missed opportunities where negotiators could have employed certain tactics that could have increased the chances for a more peaceful resolution.

A review of this incident, specifically conducted by Adam Dolnik (and co-author of our paper) demonstrates that established crisis and hostage negotiation skills can be effective yet the established methods of determining if a hostage incident can or should be negotiated as well as the methods of measuring progress needs to be reviewed.

Read the full article [HERE] and click the info graphic to see a larger version of it.

Saturday, August 2, 2014

The Science of Negotiation – Patterns to Predict Success or Failure

I highly recommend reading this from the brilliant people at Metric Lab.  Yes, it's a bit long and covers a variety of topics but it is well worth reading for both law enforcement and non-law enforcement personnel.  

Behavior Patterns of the Taker-Negotiator Relationship
In addition to the creation of the Crisis Communication Rating Scale, McClain’s research team applied this system to archived transcripts of hostage negotiations and obtained preliminary results. These findings have identified certain communication patterns that are associated with a peaceful resolution.
First, the research indicated that increased communication between hostage taker and negotiator led to a greater chance of peaceful resolution…
Second, it was found that as more personal information about the hostage taker was disclosed, the negotiator-taker relationship deepened, leading to feelings of trust and willingness to cooperate
Finally, it was found that the hostage taker tends to follow the lead of the hostage negotiator. 
Read the full article from Metric Lab [HERE]. 

Friday, August 1, 2014

Leadership Expert & Hostage Negotiator George Kohlrieser Gives Tips

THE first time he was taken hostage was the worst.
George Kohlrieser was a young psychologist working alongside the domestic violence unit of Ohio’s police department. Only this time, they were not in a home but a hospital where a “very psychotic man” was holding a pair of scissors to a nurse’s neck. Despite their training and weapons, police were powerless to stop him.
“[He was] screaming and yelling and not really responding to anything. He soon cut [the nurse’s throat] with the scissors he was holding to her neck, he didn’t really make any demands he was just out of his mind,” Mr Kohlrieser said.
Read more from [HERE]. 

Thursday, July 31, 2014

The Surrender Ritual

After working for many hours, or even days, the conclusion of a crisis and hostage incident can be incredibly tense and stressful.  Wanting to avoid any pitfalls that could derail the negotiation, the negotiator has to avoid the desire to move quickly with the subject turning him or herself voluntarily over to the authorities.

The following article by Dr. Laurence Miller from describes more about the "surrender ritual":

Wednesday, July 30, 2014

Anatomy of an Abduction

Among the interesting tidbits in this is the high reward for engaging in terrorist-related kidnappings this while also, like this infographic shows, there was little or no planning. 

With little planning, an ill-equipped group of Islamic extremists succeeded in kidnapping 32 European citizens in the Algerian desert in 2003, holding them for up to six months and ransoming them for 5 million euros.

Tuesday, July 29, 2014

Communicating Effectively for Successful Hostage Negotiations & Crisis Intervention

Enjoy the following paper written by James L. Greenstone.

Here's the abstract:

Whether it is a barricaded crisis situation or negotiations with a bad actor holding hostages, the keys to success are the skills of the negotiator or intervener to effectively communicate.
Little else matters if communications is not established, maintained and utilized in such a way that management of the instant situation becomes possible.
Most negotiators think that they are effective communicators.
 Some are. 
Many are not.
Communications must be practiced over and over again to assure proficiency.  This article provides the rudiments of the skills needed for success in the field.

Read the full article [HERE]. 

Saturday, July 19, 2014

Job Opening at the UN


To apply and for questions, visit [HERE]. 

Location :Nairobi, KENYA
Application Deadline :17-Jul-14
Additional CategoryCrisis Prevention and Recovery
Type of Contract :Individual Contract
Post Level :International Consultant
Languages Required :English  
Starting Date :
(date when the selected candidate is expected to start)
Duration of Initial Contract :12 months
Expected Duration of Assignment :12 months (3 –year retainer basis)

In 2004, a proposal for strengthening and unifying the United Nations security management system was presented to the 59th session of the General Assembly in Report A/59/365 of 11 October 2004. This resulted in the adoption of General Assembly Resolution (A/RES/59/276, XI, 7 - 23 December 2004) that created the Department of Safety and Security merging the security management component of the Office of the United Nations Security Coordinator (UNSECOORD), the Security and Safety Services (SSS) and the civilian security component of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) into a single security management framework.